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Member since: Tue Feb 7, 2017, 12:49 PM
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Journal Archives

Malcolm Nance -- posted new info about Foreign intell agencies assistance

One source suggested the official investigation was making progress. “They now have specific concrete and corroborative evidence of collusion,” the source said. “This is between people in the Trump campaign and agents of [Russian] influence relating to the use of hacked material.”


And someone on MN's twitter feed also made this connection:
Of course Biden always closed a joint session with "God Save the Queen".... well one time for sure...


Very Interesting comments at UN By the Russian Deputy :

"You’re scared,” Safronkov said, according to a translation from the Moscow Times. “Your dream has slipped away, because we’re going to work with the United States. You’re afraid of this. You’re doing everything you can to sabotage this teamwork… Look at me! Don’t turn your eyes away! Why are you looking away?”

Watch Russia's UN Deputy Warn A British Diplomat To Never "Dare Insult Russia Again" - BuzzFeed News

Apparently, he is not aware of the T-Rexxon Putin charade underway.... perhaps in the heat of the moment he forgot ?

Russian Cyber Capabilities, Policy and Practice

This article was published in the winter of 2014

It identifies the motivation, philosophy, and implementation strategies related to Russia's cyber operations......

In 2014, the subject of this article was most likely seen as unimportant or irrelevant by the average US reader....

Today, it's subject is of utmost importance to us all.


Russia—its government and a motley crew of sometimes government- sponsored but always government-connected cyber-criminals and youth group members—has integrated cyber operations into its military doctrine, has used cyber tools against enemies foreign and domestic, and is conducting strategic espionage against the United States.

Moreover, it spares no diplomatic effort in trying to forge a path for its nefarious activities while resisting efforts to do anything constructive in the international arena.

To explain all this, it is necessary to set out two points about Russia:
1) Russia is characterized by a unique nexus of government, business, and crime; and
2) Russia takes a much broader approach to information operations than do most Western countries.

Corruption is the dominant characteristic of the current Russian polity. And with systemic corruption come opportunities for collusion on just about everything.
The rule of law flies out the window, replaced by personal relationships and payoffs. Laws are enforced arbitrarily—what matters is oneʼs circle of friends.

The second point is that Russia holds a broad concept of information warfare, which includes intelligence,
electronic warfare,
debilitation of communications,
degradation of navigation support,
psychological pressure,
degradation of information systems and propaganda.

Computers are just among the many tools of information warfare,
which is carried out 24 hours a day, seven days a week, in war and in peace.
Seen this way, distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, cyber espionage, and Russia Today television are all related tools of information warfare.

Moreover, Russiaʼs way of kinetic war includes information warfare and it follows that information warfare against Russia will be considered warfare.

The current Russian military doctrine calls for “prior implementation of measures of informational warfare in order to achieve political objectives without the utilization of military forces.”


Another link to Vlad...

The Chairman of the Advisory Council for the Center for the National Interest (CNI) is Richard Burt.
The CNI is a very pro-Russia group and seems to be the common organization linking many of the Trump Team....

This 2016 article explains Burt's involvement in the campaign while serving as a lobbyist for Russian interests....


A Republican lobbyist was earning hundreds of thousands of dollars to promote one of Vladimir Putin’s top geopolitical priorities at the same time he was helping to shape Donald Trump’s first major foreign policy speech.

In the first two quarters of 2016, the firm of former Reagan administration official Richard Burt received $365,000 for work he and a colleague did to lobby for a proposed natural-gas pipeline owned by a firm controlled by the Russian government, according to congressional lobbying disclosures reviewed by POLITICO.

Burt’s lobbying work for New European Pipeline AG, the company behind the pipeline known as Nord Stream II, began in February. At the time, the Russian state-owned oil giant Gazprom owned a 50 percent stake in New European Pipeline AG. In August, five European partners pulled out and Gazprom now owns 100 percent.

This spring, Burt helped shape Trump’s first major foreign policy address, according to Burt and other sources. Burt recommended that Trump take a more “realist,” less interventionist approach to world affairs, as first reported by Reuters.
Trump’s April 27 speech sounded those themes and called for greater cooperation with Russia.

The Russian ambassador to the United States broke the diplomatic norm against attending campaign events to sit in the front row.

In addition to helping shape Trump’s speech, Burt attended two dinners this summer hosted by Alabama Sen. Jeff Sessions, who had been named chairman of Trump’s national security committee.
Burt was invited to discuss issues of national security and foreign policy, and wrote white papers for Sessions on the same subjects, according to Burt and another person with knowledge of the situation.

According to a person with direct knowledge of the situation, one of the papers was about “key foreign policy themes” and another was about “national security decision-making and structure; relationships between Defense, State, [the National Security Council] and so on and how to sort of think about the transition.”
According to a second person with knowledge of the situation, Sessions was “very impressed” with the latter paper.

All the while, Burt continued to be paid for his Nord Stream II lobbying work, which is ongoing.

Asked about the simultaneous lobbying and advising, both sides downplayed the relationship.

“We have no knowledge of this,” wrote Trump spokeswoman Hope Hicks in an email. “In fact, our team cannot verify his self-proclaimed contributions to Mr. Trump's speech and, I don't believe Mr. Trump or our policy staff has ever met Mr. Burt. To our knowledge he had no input in the speech and has had no contact with our policy team.”

Burt said that he has discussed Trump with Russian officials,

According to congressional disclosures signed by Burt and another member of the firm, the lobbying work consists of “monitoring and supplementing Washington discussion of EU energy security.”

But in August, he told a POLITICO reporter that he had advised Sessions and sent him white papers: “I’ve sent him some papers and given him some ideas and sent him some people. I won’t name them but they’re Washington types,” Burt told POLITICO in August.

This week, Burt acknowledged, “I did write a one-pager on national security organization but it was for a think tank.

I also attended two dinners, each with 8-10 people, to discuss foreign policy issues and Sessions was present.

But it was made clear that this was designed to discuss foreign policy substance not campaign issues. In fact, one participant in the dinners later endorsed Hillary.”

Burt said he delivered his written advice for the Trump campaign through an intermediary whom he declined to name, and that he has not had contact with Sessions or anyone else working with the campaign since the dinners this summer.

Burt’s connections to Russia go back many decades. In 1989, former President George H.W. Bush appointed Burt to negotiate the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty with the USSR, which was concluded in 1991.

In recent years, the 69-year-old Burt said he has advised Russia’s Alfa Bank, and he continues to work with the bank’s co-founder, Mikhail Fridman.

Burt has also registered for recent lobbying work on behalf of the Ukrainian construction firm TMM,
the Polish government-owned airline LOT and
the Capital Bank of Jordan.

In recent years, the Kremlin has made influencing Western think tanks a more prominent component of its soft power strategy.

“He’s (Burt) a tremendously sophisticated operator. He comes across as a tremendously polished, knowledgeable doyen of the foreign service,” said a person who witnessed Burt sell the pipeline at a meeting at the Atlantic Council last month and spoke on the condition of anonymity because the session was meant to remain private. “

“If we want to speak to people in the United States, he helps us set up meetings with people,” said Jens Mueller, a spokesman for the pipeline project,

Said Burt of the apparent attempts to subvert the election, “It does appear to be a lot of suspicious activity on the part of the Russian government.”

Nunes Nonsense

Upon reading Nunes' rambling presser comments,
Key Republican Lawmaker Says Intelligence Was Collected on Members of Trump Transition - TIME
I am not sure if he is intentionally confusing/conflating the information or if he really just does not completely understand the nature of the information he has.

Most of the information was collected “incidentally” during the transition, from November through January, Rep. Devin Nunes said at a press conference Wednesday. Nunes emphasized that he believes it was all obtained legally, and noted that none of the information was related to Russia.

So, Domestic Surveillance transcripts of
Discussions ABOUT the actions/members of Trump's Team????

The details about the people associated with the Administration had “little or no apparent foreign intelligence value” Nunes said, but were widely disseminated in intelligence reporting.

Surveillance Targets were US citizens -- who were discussing policies/intentions related to 45 -- while under surveillance.....??

“It was a lot of information on the President-elect and the transition team and what they were doing,” Nunes said.
Sources came to him legally with this information, he said.

it sounds like he freaked because he realized that IC knows what the 45 Administration is up to & who all the key players are ...
(and possibly he realized that it was a far bigger cast of co-conspirators than he knew about)

Hard to know if he is aware of the specific "investigation" topic/subject for which this surveillance was collected ....
because he is presenting it as if the only purpose for its collection was "political".

When, it seems more likely that it was collected during the course of a criminal investigation unrelated to politics...
and the people being investigated happened to be discussing their knowledge of / involvement with the transition team.

If it were collected under a FISA warrant there would be no "legal" avenue for its disclosure outside of the IC.... without DoJ involvement....
But if just part of a criminal investigation... the rules for disclosure are very different and Include circumstances for disclosure ...

Who knows...
Just one possible explanation for Nunes' incredibly unethical & potentially illegal shenanigans ....

Media Tactics that Manufacture "Truth"

THE war of the bots is one of the wilder and weirder aspects of the elections of 2016. At the Oxford Internet Institute’s Unit for Computational Propaganda, its director, Phil Howard, and director of research, Sam Woolley, show me all the ways public opinion can be massaged and manipulated. But is there a smoking gun, I ask them, evidence of who is doing this? “There’s not a smoking gun,” says Howard. “There are smoking machine guns. There are multiple pieces of evidence.”

“Look at this,” he says and shows me how, before the US election, hundreds upon hundreds of websites were set up to blast out just a few links, articles that were all pro-Trump. “This is being done by people who understand information structure, who are bulk buying domain names and then using automation to blast out a certain message. To make Trump look like he’s a consensus.”
And that requires money?
“That requires organisation and money. And if you use enough of them, of bots and people, and cleverly link them together, you are what’s legitimate. You are creating truth.”

You can take an existing trending topic, such as fake news, and then weaponise it. You can turn it against the very media that uncovered it. Viewed in a certain light, fake news is a suicide bomb at the heart of our information system. Strapped to the live body of us – the mainstream media.


This is just a small snippet of an extremely long article......
However, it is well worth the time --
As it addresses How Bannon & Mercer successfully utilized technology to create the propaganda that put 45 in the Oval Office...

This appears to be the new standard in campaign communication strategy....
The only way to beat it is to fully understand it &/or learn how to use it.....

Trump BAKU Tower Partner & Russia's Rosneft

I wondered how Donnie might have hooked up with his Baku Tower Partners -- the Mammadov family

Looks like they both have Vlad / Rosneft on their buddy list........

Donald Trump Is Doing Business With a Controversial Azerbaijani Oligarch | Mother Jones
July 2015


Anar Mammadov, CEO, Socar Energy Greece


State Oil Company of the Azerbaijani Republic

Rosneft" and "Socar Turkey Enerji" sign agreement
21:20 10-10-2016


Baku-APA.  Rosneft and Socar Turkey Enerji AS [subsidiary of Azerbaijan’s SOCAR] signed an agreement on supplies of oil and oil products at the World Energy Congress, the Russian oil major said in the press release.
“The parties will examine cooperation potential within the scope of new Star Refinery with the capacity about 10 mln tonnes, under construction by Socar Turkey Enerji. Companies will consider the opportunity of organizing Rosneft supplies to the entity, particularly oil and other raw materials,” Rosneft said.

SOCAR considers buying some assets from Rosneft
2016 February 12 ( Friday )  11:49:45

SOCAR has been considering possibility of buying some assets of Rosneft company in Russia. “Within several weeks the documents could be possibly signed.
The assets have been named, but there are many candidates, because everyone would like to cooperate with Rosneft,” SOCAR President Rovnag Abdullayev told journalists after his talks with Rosneft President Igor Sechin at IP Week.
Two sources familiar with the situation told Interfax that SOCAR has considered purchase of Polyarnoye Siyaniye company from Rosneft, which has been eventually purchased by the company owned by Aleksei and Yurii Khotin (including ConocoPhillips’s share).
Commenting on SOCAR’s interest in Polyarnoye Siyaniye, representative of Azeri company told journalists: “There are many assets in Russia that are under consideration.”
In May 2014 SOCAR and Rosneft created a joint venture, which is also involved in production. But the JV has not been operating yet.

Azerbaijan Politics: Quick View - SOCAR Signs Deal With Russian Energy Firm
The Economist
* Date Jun. 4, 2014,

The State Oil Company of the Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR) announced on May 24th that it had entered a joint venture (JV) agreement with a Russian state-owned energy firm, Rosneft.
The agreement enables SOCAR and Rosneft to co-operate on the exploration and production of oil and gas projects within Azerbaijan, Russia and in third countries.


The parties agreed upon creation of a joint venture on a parity basis, and to include shares of participation in producing assets in Russia, Azerbaijan, and third countries into its authorized capital. The list of assets will be agreed upon further.

The document was signed in follow-up of Cooperation Agreement between Rosneft and SOCAR from 13 August 2013, in which the parties intended to develop oil and gas exploration and production projects in Russia and Azerbaijan by creation of a joint venture.

Rosneft Signs Deal With SOCAR During Putin's Visit
August 13, 2013


FBI ... 45... RICO

A while back there was a brief mention in a congress persons rant that Comey has 45's tax returns......

Maybe it is a RICO investigation that has a wiretap on 45....

If Russian Collusion investigation fails perhaps RICO will be the ticket to jail for 45.......

What does Vlad really want?

For just a minute let's presume that Vlad knows better than to put all of his eggs in one basket...
Or share his entire plan with any single individual....

Just like terror cells & assets involved in other large scale infiltration operations, it is rare for the members to be given information beyond that which is absolutely necessary to accomplish their given task.

This would mean that the small fish assets may truly believe that there is no large operation underway and have no idea that they are actually part of a whole school of assets whose independent acts are contributing to a larger operation.
Even if caught, an individual fish can't provide information he does not know.

45 has always referred to:
* wanting to make "good deals" with Vlad
* 4% growth
* Tariffs
* Bilateral agreements
* Renegotiate NAFTA
* Ditch allies unless they pay up
* Obsolete NATO
* Manufacturing & Mining industries
* Oil, oil, oil, and more oil
* De regulation of everything
* How much the sanctions have really hurt Russians (awwww)

Now consider the cabinet & 45's advisors & who he has met with...

* Wilbur Ross - Cyprus Bank ($)
* Tillerson - Exxon (oil)
* Flynn - Pro Putin (security/intelligence/military)
* Schwarzman - Blackstone ($)
* Carter Page - Pro Russia / oil & $
* Manafort - Russia/Ukraine politics
* Ivanka /Jared - Russia Social Scene & domestic real estate investment opportunities
* Bannon / Sessions/ Miller -- pre existing relationship built on common nationalist beliefs
* Jack Ma - Alibaba - global internet trade and new investment partner with Russian bank - Speaker at St. Petersburg International Economic Forum 2016

At the 2016 SPIEF, Putin gave a speech in which he stated the following:
" Common energy, oil and gas and financial markets will emerge by 2025."
"The Russia-led alliance of 'Great Eurasia' is set to become one of the centers of the new 'wide integration contour'."
" Flexible integration alliances will define the future of the world economy,”
"GDP growth in Russia should be at least 4% in the long term."
"There is a risk that the geopolitical tensions in the world may increase due to a depletion of natural resources."

A common market, one of four levels of economic integration, is one in which members agree to:
•trade freely amongst themselves
•apply same tariffs & trade policy with non-members
•no restrictions on immigration, capital investment, or technology sharing amongst members

Basically, Putin is looking to be at the center of one or more common Oil/Gas markets, in which goods,services, people, money, and technology can move freely from one member country to another....

Definitely requires more than just the lifting of sanctions...

More on sanctions & Putin/USA....

Parallels between 45 & recent Russian Economic Forum

By looking at a few of the topics discussed at the 2016 St.Petersburg International Economic Forum, one can begin to better understand Putin's vision, how Trump can help him, and the motivation behind some of Trump's rhetoric which is likely a desire to implement concepts, from Putin's vision, here in the USA.

The following overviews are taken directly from a forum agenda

The Economic Impact of Migrant Crises :

• The massive influx of refugees from the Middle East and Central Asia has become a major international challenge, threatening the political fortunes of a number of individual EU heads of government and straining the Union’s core foundations.
* But Europe is not alone in confronting a backlash to immigration;
* in the US the influx of the Latino population has increased xenophobia and reshaped the body politic,
* while regional economies such as Turkey and Jordan must manage the flood of huge minority populations.
* What policies must be implemented to create a sensible and sustainable immigration policy for each of these economies, turning what is presently viewed as a crisis into a potential economic growth opportunity?
* What is at stake for the rest of the world if these crises continue unabated? 

The Big Challenges in Promoting Scientific Development :
* Science and technology play a predominant role in providing solutions to modern humanity’s critical challenges.
* Science itself is evolving as it confronts new challenges, but to what extent are these changes the result of external factors?
* What is currently driving scientific development internationally and in Russia: responding to external demands or the sequential logic of R&D activities?
* What are the key foundations of modern-day scientific and technical development and how might this change?
* What are some of the potential social, economic, and political impacts that can be derived from effective approaches to scientific development?

Clean Energy-- Building Momentum in a Renaissance in Nuclear Power :
* Recent innovations in financing models, mobility for power stations, generation and water desalination applications, as well as technologies to recycle spent rods, are all driving a renewed interest in nuclear as a growing part of the energy mix.
* What are the next big opportunities for the USD 55 billion industry and
* what challenges must be overcome for the sector to reach its full potential? 

Energy Company Summit 
World Oil Market at Crossroads: Uncertainty Investments or Risk Management?
* The most critical phase of the global oil market crisis is over.
* However, oil prices are still low, investments in oil production and exploration are being cut for the second consecutive year, and a high degree of uncertainty remains in the market.
* What are the short-term and long-term effects of underinvestment in the oil industry?
* How will it influence the resource-to-production ratio?
* Is the price increase seen in the recent weeks a long-term trend?
* Is this level of prices sufficient to recover investments?
* What is the role of shale oil production in the demand and supply balance and pricing in the mid-term?
* Is it possible to speak about the start of a new era in the development and regulation of the global oil market? 

SPIEF 2016 Energy Conference participants from USA:
Gustavo Sapoznik, CEO, ASAPP (USA);
Dirk Ahlborn, CEO, Hyperloop Transportation Technologies (USA);
Jim Rogers, Chairman, Beeland Interests (USA);
Donald James Umpleby III, Group President for Energy & Power Systems, Caterpillar (USA);
Daniel Yergin, Vice Chairman, IHS (USA);
Dominic Barton, Global Managing Director, McKinsey & Company (USA);
Johan Aurik, Managing Partner and Chairman of the Board, A.T. Kearney (USA);
Rex Tillerson, Chairman and CEO, ExxonMobil Corporation (USA);
Javier Perez, President for Europe, MasterCard (USA);

Addressing Climate Change: Potential Costs and Opportunities :

• The success of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris has made addressing climate change a top-priority issue, with clear targets to moderate further global temperature increases.
* But limiting greenhouse gases will have costs for many legacy industries – estimated by some to top USD 100 billion – while new investments in science and technology will spur new business opportunities and expand markets.
* How are businesses adjusting their strategies in the light of these changes and
* will the potential benefits of creating green industries and mitigating climate change risks outweigh the costs of restructuring certain industrial sectors and building the required infrastructure? 

Healthcare in Russia: How to Build a More Effective System?
* Russian healthcare over the past century has been recognized as a global leader in many areas.
* More recently, the government has introduced the “Health” National Priority Project and regional modernization programmes.
* What institutional and managerial solutions could help Russia regain its reputation for setting global standards?

Journalism & Artificial Intelligence:
* Newest Technologies vs. Traditional Journalism.
* Is Artificial Intelligence a Threat to the Journalistic Profession?
* The new era of technical innovation is resulting in fundamental changes to many traditional business procedures, jobs and professions – and journalism is no exception.
* Computer software is offering cutting- edge online solutions that increasingly surpass humans in terms of speed and quality of produced content.
* Automatic scripts for writing news products based on processing raw data are being widely used by dozens of news organizations around the world and
* these news writing robots do not need holidays or weekends, never miss deadlines and generate content ready at a fraction of the cost.
* How far away are we from the day when machines acquire the ability to perform journalistic investigations and write analytical memos?
* Are we on the doorstep of a new era when human beings will no longer be necessary to do a journalist’s job?

Re-Globalization: Tectonic Shifts in the Geo-Economic Landscape In cooperation with VTB Bank:

• The inevitability of unabated globalization and its unquestioned benefit for the global community have recently unravelled, straining national politics, altering international relations, and transforming global markets.
* In its place are emerging regional trading blocks, such as TPP and TTIP, to name a few, a new generation of financial and economic institutions, and the potential for new trade and investment flows.
* But the many risks of destabilization and a growing tide of geopolitical turmoil are challenging policymakers and businesses to navigate this transformation to a new global paradigm.
* How will these new factors impact issues that, by their nature, are global, such as energy, climate change, trade, finance, etc.?
* And what steps should be taken to mitigate risks and create a more sustainable economic architecture? 

Global currency:
* The world’s reserve currency system is undergoing increasingly visible shifts.
* The inclusion of the yuan in the SDR basket is symbolic of the growing weight of the developing nations.
* While the US economy as a percentage of global GDP in relative terms is shrinking,
* the role of the US dollar in global finance remains deeply entrenched.
* What are the risks inherent to a global financial system tied so closely to the “greenback”, and
* what steps can and should be taken to create a more stable basket of currencies?

Russia–North America: Business Outlook for Economic Cooperation – a Reality Check :

• In the current economic climate and weak economic environment, the majority of North American companies active in Russia are maintaining the status quo of their positions or in some cases expanding operations.
* What do Russian, US, and Canadian companies believe to be the prospects for, and potential benefits and risks of, expanded business and economic cooperation?
* What confidence-building measures could the three governments take to improve the conditions for business development and commercial engagement? 

Russia–Japan: Creating a New Business Cooperation Model :
* The development of mutually beneficial economic relations with countries in the Asia-Pacific region is a priority for Russia and strengthening the partnership with Japan – one of the world’s largest financial, economic, and investment centres – is among the most promising.
* Investment projects, establishing Russian–Japanese enterprises, and jointly promoting goods and services on the markets of third countries are extremely important to businesses in Russia and Japan, and offer a great deal of promise.
* Recently, as a result of weakness in both economies, there has been a decline in bilateral trade and investment.
* How can the current difficulties be overcome, and what should be done to diversify trade and economic cooperation between the two countries?
* What practical steps could be taken to promote relations and bring economic ties to a new level?

Exports :
* Over the past decade and a half, Russia’s trade has predominantly centred around the export of oil, gas, and other commodities.
* However, the country’s geographical position, wealth of resources, and strong science and technology foundations provide the fundamentals for a competitive manufacturing sector, while the rouble exchange rate and export support measures are boosting the potential for entry into new markets.
* In complement to the country’s traditional CIS and European Union trading partners, the Asia-Pacific region, characterized by its enormous array of industrial, transport, social, and urban infrastructure development projects, is becoming an increasingly important market.
* What steps should Russian producers take to expand their presence in global markets and build more systematic integration into global supply chains and the long-term development programmes of foreign partners?
* What should the government do to better support and develop exports?

Putting Domestic Investment to Work to Drive Expansion :
* In fast-growing economies, the main sources of economic growth are domestic and private investment.
* Corporate profits, private savings, and state and non-governmental pension funds can all be more effectively channelled into financing productive elements of the Russian economy, providing needed corporate and infrastructure funding while enhancing productivity.
* What mechanisms should the government and regulators consider for facilitating safe deployment of domestic savings into return- generating ventures?
* Should the corporate bond market or other alternative investment instruments be developed further?
* What is the role of investment in diversifying the economy and which sectors can demonstrate the greatest potential?

Labour Mobility and the Future of the Social Contract Between the Company and Employees :
* Labour mobility, particularly for young people early in their careers, is an important aspect for gaining experience and professional development.
* However the mass exodus of a skilled, youthful workforce can have a negative impact on local communities.
* How can the trend of labour migration best be managed and what incentives should be put in place to create sustainable development models for local communities?
* How can companies create the right environment to retain talent and provide career progression?
* And what is the role of education in underpinning labour mobility strategies? 

University Education in a Changing World :
* Finding the right balance in the relationship between business and universities has been a subject of debate for more than a century.
* The issue has become even more pertinent in recent years as the university of the future will not only have to educate its students, but also develop their technological and business skills and instill a culture of entrepreneurship.
* Do the challenges in modern education require a fundamental rethinking of paradigms and approaches or
* is the role of the university simply to ensure that graduates find jobs?
* How can universities become the epicentre of change and development for a region, industries, or a country, and are these models universal?
* How should Russia’s higher education system be organized and should it retain its current department- and industry-based structure?

Public Private Partnerships:
* There are currently 873 PPP projects underway in Russia, with the total volume of private investment topping RUB 640.3 billion.
* Most concessionary projects are in housing and utilities, and 2015 was a year 
of huge growth in the sector, with a tenfold increase in investment volumes over the previous year.
* How can this growth be explained and can the housing and utilities experience be applied to other sectors?
* Has the potential for international investment in the real economy been exhausted and what can be done to make such opportunities more attractive to foreign capital?
* Are additional measures needed to stimulate private investment in housing and utilities?

Mutual Funding in Rental Housing: To Trust or Not to Trust?

• Mutual funding in rental housing is a modern and innovative investment tool to spur growth in the Russian housing market.
* What might be the impact of collective investment on rental housing and could this lead to the economic revival of the sector?
* Could this tool be considered as an alternative to private ownership and what are the benefits and risks involved for citizens, government, and businesses?
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